This implied both that they influenced the Iranian tradition and that they were shaped and remodeled by standards prevalent within the Iranian context. The beginning of Sorani as a literary language. Thus each generation of Kurdish poets could learn from their predecessors. While this element of distance between the learned and the popular is lacking, at certain periods in history Persian elite literature employed styles heavily laden with figures of speech and other adornments as well as words and phrases borrowed from Arabic, which probably rendered them unattractive to popular taste. He may have been the first Kurdish poet to write novels in verse, using the sweeping poetic span of the mathnavi rhymed couplet form. However, it may be that the allusive nature of the songs and their need for contextualization makes them harder to preserve intact than narratives, which at least have the course of the story as a mnemonic. After much wandering, the Kurdish poets Hejar and Hemin see above sought refuge in Iraq, where they could at last publish their work. Many of the Kurdish emirs, who flourished up to the midnineteenth century, were patrons of the arts, whose courts hosted performances of both literary and oral material.

The Turkish government has taken the political impact of Newroz seriously, attempting to present it as a piece of purely Turkic rather than Iranian cultural property. God uttered a command to the Stone,4 the Stone disintegrated, and from the pieces of the stone smoke rose up into the air. For a long time Kurdish was considered to be a sort of Persian dialect, so much so that the elite used Persian as their means of expression. The Yezidi tradition comprises two main categories of long sacred poems, Qewl and Beyt. A whole spectrum of material exists, from poems which recount stories to songs which are very allusive indeed, which require a great deal of background knowledge to understand them, and whose purpose is to arouse emotion rather than to inform. A History of Persian Literature: Iranian Kurds suffered from the upheavals of the Islamic Revolution and sporadic uprisings against it, and from their territory becoming a battlefield in the Iran-Iraq war.

Both traditions may have played a role in the genesis of these poems. New ideas broadened their horizons. Twice a year since it has brought together about twenty Kurdish writers and linguists to study the problems of spelling and modernization of Kurmanji Kurdish.


These may imply, for instance, that one hayee figure was essentially identical with another who lived at a different time, both being manifestations of an essence which already existed at the time of Creation. Genre is not determined only by a combination of text with style and form, but also by social context Ben-Amos ; Dundes When their graves are opened they are found to be embracing.

Although these disciplines share the same object of study, their interest in it derives from very different preoccupations and backgrounds: A thorough treatment of films as part of popular culture may well hays possible ten years from now, but at the time of writing this was an unattainable goal.

With its various newly developed foci of interest, such as sociological significance, adaptability to context, and interactive, performance-related aspects, popular literature has become a fascinating field of research, offering insights into the mind and perception of humanity informed by a deeply-felt historical filn.

Khande Bazar – ( Part 55) – خنده بازار + طنز حریم سلطان ٣١ مرداد ٩٢ – VideoClip

This vast territory was never unified politically. There are many less prestigious verse forms.

It certainly lacks many common elements of heroic epic, notably long martial episodes. Oskar Mann has described how aspiring performers would apprentice themselves to a known singer and learn his repertoire, paying for their training by doing chores Mannpp. The imagery of laments is very similar to that of other Kurdish oral poetry. In Ismail Duko b. Their perspective was Eurocentric. This phenomenon still hays.

Her main areas of interest are orality, literacy, memory and popular culture across the Middle East and especially amongst the Kurds. In the five Kurdish newspapers were banned and their editors jailed. Thanks to the dynamism of Academician Frejman and especially I.

Heyran, heyranok often denotes love songs in particular. However, some genres, such as proverbs and fables, are highly prescriptive of both subject matter and jadive.

Khande Bazar – ( Part 55) – خنده بازار + طنز حریم سلطان ٣١ مرداد ٩٢

For example, in the tradition of lyrical song or stran performed primarily by the Yezidis of Northern Iraq, which was once also widespread in Turkey where it was usually called lawikaudiences respond to such devices as a speedy delivery with very little pause for breath, and extremely long melismas near the ends of lines.


Scholars have barely begun to map out this literary landscape, which seems to be quite consistent over large areas of Kurdistan. Luqman Turgut whose help with the sub-editing, layout, Bibliographies, and Index proved invaluable, and to Mrs. Kurdish became the official language of the administration, press and schools.

However, oral literature was not just a homely village phenomenon. After that he created six5 divinities from His essence and His light. Within the Kurdish Autonomous Zone in Iraq, the Kurmanji dialect has only recently come to be taught at all levels in schools in the Badinan region.

Exceptions which have short but useful in40 Kurdish Oral Literature troductions include Mann I, pp. These magazines were successively banned, and their publishers and editors sentenced to prison.

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On Sufi influences see further below, under Mystical themes. The role played by genre in the interpretation of oral literature by Kurdish audiences is crucial. However, this distinction is not absolute; narrative poetry can be accompanied with musical instruments. The filn of literature that can only be appreciated by those who have enjoyed a privileged education is seen as superior to literature whose imagery and wording make it accessible to large numbers of people.

Orientalists have in the past been particularly guilty of looking at native genres and finding them wanting, usually because they have not conformed to preconceptions of analogous Western genres, or of classical literary genres.

The influence of printing on Persian popular literature The introduction of printing in the Qajar period contributed tremendously, if not decisively, to the present-day notion filj what popular literature in the Persian context actually means. Kreyenbroek Editor xxxiv The Study of Popular Literature in 1329 Persian Context The following remarks aim at outlining a number of theoretical questions that jaside a role in the study of popular literature in the Persian context.

They locate the action in Iranian Kurdistan, but some emphasize the role of tribes and places in Iraq; for example, the Khan is said by some to come from Amadiya.

Oral tradition in Kurdistan.